Stones and its application

10 June 2015

Practical points to choose proper stone:

Choosing a proper stone with the most compatibility with weather conditions of the environment to guaranty the solidity of the structure is a very important point that should be considered by purchaser.

Due to lack of information about stones among consumers it is considered in this essay to render some practical information for choosing proper stones in brief.

Customers are usually facing problems choosing proper stone and they often make their choices based on hearsays and false criteria, although a right choice can increase solidity and beauty of the structure and decrease the cost of repairs and reconstruction in future.

The first point that should be noted for buying stone is that stone is a natural substance extracted from the ground and it should not be expected to be a smooth an unchangeable product in texture, color and design like neopan, ceramic, mosaic and other human products.

Stone processes the beauty lying in the heart of nature and a person who chooses it as a natural product must admit it’s game of color and design.

Paying attention to this tip, now we can choose the appropriate stone considering the following points:

If you intend to buy stone for your building, you must choose it’s type according to the certain place in which it is going to be used.

Building spaces are usually divided in to the following categories:

  • Exterior
  • Interior
  • Staircase and landing
  • Indoor floor in residential spaces
  • Indoor floor in commercial spaces and offices
  • Roof floor and pavement
  • Restrooms
  • Upper surfaces of walls in enclosures, yards and around roofs
  • The surface of the cabinets and its open platforms

Categories of stones available in market:

  • Travertine
  • Granite
  • Marble
  • Porcelain
  • Limestone
  • traonyx
  • Sandstone
  • Onyx

It is possible to choose the proper stone according to these categories and weather conditions of the environment.


A quick way to find out the appropriate material of the stone and that it has no cracks is that when the stone is tapped by a metal object or stone it sounds like glass when tapped.


Travertine, granite and sandstone (With wood pattern) are some suitable stones for exterior surface of the building.

Travertine is very well resistant to cold, heat, ultra-violet rays of the sun and humidity compared to other kinds of stones and most granites have the same qualities as well.

A significant point is that according to development of mining and processing machinery for stones in last two decades mines od stones specially travertine have extended dramatically in IRAN and consequently stone cutting plants processing travertine stone have increase in number as well.

Travertine with much variation of color and beautiful natural design has been able to obtain a special place between other types of stones.

Being lime and porous as characteristics of travertine help it create good adherence with cement and preserves it’s durability on the surface of the building.

That’s why using variable types of travertine for exterior surface of buildings has widely spread.

It’s important to notice that travertine installed in a different procedure comparing to other types of stone.

Due to temperature difference between day and night outside and the change of seasons and the resulting expansion and contracting of stone, it will be probably removed from the surface if installed using cement grout. So it is necessary to scope behind the stone to fit it on the surface or to screw the stones one by one on the surface soon after installation to prevent them from falling, which is an old and outdated method and does not make a good appearance.

It’s preferable to spend money on scoping before installation rather than spending it on screwing the stones after installation.

Actually scoping is necessary only for some particular types of travertine stone with low porosity and for granite stone as well.

The other method is riprapping in which the surface is fixed with chassis using profile and metal angle and then the stones which are in the form of tiles are fixed on the chassis using a pin.

Suggestion: Different kinds of colored travertine and granites.


Marble, travertine, granite, porcelain, limestone and almost all kinds of stones can be used for interior walls of the building because they are not exposed to weather adversity in there.

However we probably have some restrictions in color and dimension in designing interior spaces (due to lack of light and…) or some other factors like humidity, need for frequent cleaning and the importance of having rigidity against scrubbing and the shine of the stone, restrict our options.

Although marbles are so popular in interior stone works because of their ability to be polished and their variety of color, design and price, but it’s impossible to deny beauty and variation of travertine and antic stones that very nice effects can be created by their combination in lobbies, staircases, around the elevator doors, staircase walls, garage walls and so on.

Generally marbles are the best choice for floors in indoor places but any kind of stones can be used for interior walls.

Stairway and landing

Choosing appropriate stone for this part of the building is so important. It’s very usual to use granite because of its high resistance against scrubbing, humidity and impact. However some marbles like KHOY marble, KHOOBSANGAN, SALSALY, KOUSAR, GOLBAHAR,… are suggested to be used in staircases. It is worth mentioning that the price of some marble stones in the proper size of staircases are a lot more than that of some granites depending on customer’s idea and budget.

Note 1:

Staircases in commercial buildings, offices and schools with so much traffic must be made of high quality marble or granite or they will be rapidly eroded and will lose their beauty.

Note 2:

Stairs in building entrance must have friction so that people can walk on them without slipping in case of rain and glacial.

There are different methods to make friction on the stone surface such as scabbing, furrowing, flaming and making the edge of the stairs undulant.

Indoor floor in residential places

Gifted designers and those who emphasize on quality of the building won’t change using stone for indoor floor of residential places for any other alternatives like ceramics, parquet, etc.

Some factors such as durability, natural color, resistance to impact of sharp things and ability to be scrubbed and polished alternatively, making the interior space beautiful and storing heat in floor heating systems are some reasons for making this decision. Of course many constructors are more inclined to use ceramic and mosaic on indoor floors in residential places to save money.

The best choice for floors in residential places are marbles. Their beauty and ability to be scrubbed cause stone cutting plants to be able to cut the high qualified kind of them even in size 1×1 meters and more.

Standard size of marbles for floor

60×60, 50×50, 40×40 and 30×30 (Centimeters)


Indoor floor in commercial places and offices

The benefits of using stone for covering floors in indoor residential places apply to commercial places and offices as well. The difference is that choosing the type of stone for these places should be more warily. Since traffic in these places is a lot more than that in residential places and the floors are not covered by carpeting. So the quality of stone is so important.

Suggestion: Any type of marbles with least cracks.

Roof floor and pavement

Travertine, porcelain and granite are very useful for roof floor and pavement bed. Resistance to humidity, pressure and freezing are characteristics of these stones.


The surface of these stones is not polished to avoid slipping in the case of rain or glacial and sometimes it’s even made undulant by some methods to increase friction.

Suggestion: Less expensive granites like white granite of NATANZ, NEHBANDAAN, etc. and different types of travertine cut in the cross cut from to be more resistant to pressure and impact.


Using stone for floor and wall covering in restrooms eases cleaning and some types of stones have high durability against humidity and impact of detergents and stain removers. So using stones is usual specially for public toilets like those in parks, places of pilgrimage and so on.


Using marbles for toilets is not recommended.

Suggestion: White porcelain of SYRJAN, LIEBID crystal, porcelain of ALIGUDARZ, porcelain of AZNA, porcelain of NEIREEZ, etc.

Upper surface of walls in enclosures, yards and around roofs

Travertine is the best and cheapest choice to be installed as a cap on the upper surface of walls.

Note: The remarkable thing about the stone used as a cap on the edge of the wall is the underside groove which is called water dropper.

Water dropper keeps rain water from running on the surface of cap stone onto the surface of wall below and ruining its cover.

The surface of cabinets and its open platforms

The stone used on the cabinets and its open platform should be resistant to impact, erosion, humidity and pressure and have the least reaction with food and detergents.

Suggestion: Granite and porcelain are good options to be used on the cabinets and its open platforms.